# Mathematics

**Introduction**

The B.Sc. (Honors) course in Mathematics extends over four academic years, each year being again divided into three semesters of four months duration each. Every student has to take a total of 143 credit hours (inclusive of laboratory and viva voce) for the entire degree course.

Each semester shall comprise of at least 12 (twelve) weeks of classes. For one credit hour course there shall be a minimum of one class per week, for a two credit hour course there shall be a minimum of two classes per week, and for a three credit hour course there shall be a minimum of three classes per week.

In the broadest sense, Mathematics includes all the related areas which touch on quantitative, geometric, and logical themes. This includes Statistics, Computer Science, Logic, Applied Mathematics, and other fields which may sometimes be considered distinct from Mathematics. There are branches of mathematics concerned with setting up equations, or analyzing their solutions, and there are parts of Mathematics devoted to creating methods for doing computations. There are also parts of Mathematics, which have nothing to do at all with numbers and equations.

There are several philosophies on how to divide the mathematical literature. One system divides the whole subject into several broad groups. Foundations consider questions in logic or set theory, which by itself, comprise the very language of Mathematics. Algebra is principally concerned with symmetry, pattern, discrete sets, and the rules for manipulating arithmetic operations. Geometry is concerned with shapes and sets, and the properties of them which are preserved under various kinds of motion. Analysis studies functions, the real number line, and the ideas of continuity and limit and is the natural successor to graphing, trigonometry, and calculus. The second broad part of Mathematics includes those areas which could be considered either independent disciplines or central parts of Mathematics, as well as those areas which clearly use Mathematics but are interested in non-mathematical ideas too. Some examples of these areas are Probability and Statistics, which has a dual nature of being both mathematical and experimental. Computer Sciences - an independent subject by itself deals with mathematical principles like algorithms and information handling. Physical Sciences and Engineering also incorporate mathematical ideas for proper understanding and development.

In fact, starting from the early days of Pythagoras and Euclid, the subject of Mathematics has come a long way to be incorporated into practically every branch of Science. The physical laws as formulated by Newton or Einstein could not have been developed without the application of mathematical principles and formulas. The University of Development Alternative (UODA) recognizes the importance of Mathematics in the present technological era. As such, the course curriculam has been designed in a manner so that the undergraduate students can familiarize themselves with the older as well as the newly emerging fields in Mathematics.

**Programme**

The B.Sc. (Honors) course in Mathematics extends over four academic years, each year being again divided into three semesters of four months duration each. To be eligible for admission in the Department of Mathematics, a student must have minimal B grades (GPA 3.00) in both S S C. and H S C examination each besides obtaining at least 55% (B- grade) in his/her Mathematics subjects in the H S C examination.

Each semester comprises of at least 12 (twelve) weeks of classes. Grades will be based on an overall evaluation of the student's performance in the mid-semester examinations, semester final examination (including viva voce), term paper assignments, class test, class attendance and active participation, and presentation. For promotion from one semester to the next, a student is required to earn a minimum GPA of 2.0.